Selection of fragments
Małgorzata K. Frąckiewicz
What were the old Łomża newspapers
➢ A convention of Justices of the Peace serving for the district Court in Łomża took place. Chairman of the Main Electoral Commission (Główna Komisja Wyborcza) a judge Römer and a commissar att. Jankowski reported a new electoral law. (ZŁ 8)
➢ On the 15th of December there was a founder meeting of the Construction Association (Stowarzyszenie Budowlane) in Łomża. An introduction delivered an engineer Czajkowski, chief of the local office of reconstruction. Chairman of the meeting was Mr. Dubois. (ZŁ 8)
➢ On the 18th of December was held a celebration of merger of POW troops with Polish Armed Force (Polska Siła Zbrojna). A commander of POW transferred his power to hands of the colonel of 33rd Infantry Kaplinski. (ZŁ 8)
➢ A commissar of Ministry of Protection and Care Mr. Waydel and a commissar of Work Ministry engineer Misjon started their service. (ZŁ 8)
➢ Mr. Mortowicz and Mr. Lniski from the management of the „Miraż” theater on the 17th -18th of December arranged cinematographic performance, proceeds from which were allocated to the share fund for creating a canteen for Polish soldiers. (ZŁ 8)
➢ Wizna settlement just after a release of the country was incorporated to the Bożejewo community. Stefan Szymański from Bronowo became a mayor. (ZŁ 8)
➢ On the 28th of December 1918 a meeting of the Łomża inhabitants was held in the male junior high. It was composed of: Cholewiński, E. Czerwonkówna, M. Wyrzykowski, J. Grochowski and E. Dąbrowski. (ZŁ 2)
➢ On the 5th of January in the premises of „Lutnia” there was a rally, convened by the Clerks Association. Blok Demokratyczno – Narodowy was represented by Mieczysław Skarzyński and Dr. Załuska, leftist groups Wołodkiewicz, Stolnicki, Supiński and Czarnecki.
➢ During the election of the city authorities as a first mayor Władysław Świderski was appointed, as his deputy Franciszek Hryniewicz, as a chairman of the city council Mieczysław Czarnecki, as assessors engineer Koneczny, att. Jan Lachowicz, Dr. Goldlust and Mr. Epsztejn.
➢ On the 12th of January a protestation of Łomża clergy, which was an answer for the allegations of Stronnictwo Ludowe and Łomżyński Związek Demokratyczny about party agitation in church was signed by: Rev. J. Łuniewski, Rev. P. Brzosko, Rev. J. Rogiński, Rev. Dr. St. Pardo, Rev. Dr. K. Grunwald, Rev. J. Roszkowski, Fr. Fidelis and Fr. Franciszek Capuchins. (ZŁ 5)
➢ The Łomża Land bought 400 000 marks worth of the state loan announced by the Paderewski government. „Łomża and vicinity mocked that call: we offered a small offal and are waiting calmly for the triumph of »the national politics«!” (ZŁ 6)
➢ Main Electoral Commission to legislative assembly on the 2nd of February 1919 presented the results of elections for District nr 3, comprising counties: Łomża, Szczuczyn, Kolno, Ostrołęka, Wysokie Mazowieckie and Ostrów. 9 mandates in the district received: Dr. Jan Załuska, Adam Mieczkowski, Michał Ostrowski, Rev. Kazimierz Lutosławski, Ignacy Załęski, Stanisław Włodek, Antoni Ramotowski and Jan Zyskowski – all from the list nr 12 and Franciszek Szymański from the list nr 3. (ZŁ 6)
➢ City authorities struggle with the lack of bread. Provisioning office by the county only slightly provides city population (Łomżą) with grain. In January city council bought grain with a free hand, but they had to pay from 170 to 205 marks per bushel of rye. Considering that bread is sold at 35 pfennigs per pound, the city would have to pay extra tens of thousands marks. To lower the deficit, they asked people to voluntarily declare if they can pay 60 or 90 pfennigs per pound. It turned out, that about 15 000 inhabitants counted themselves the poorest and only a few hundred those who can pay 90 pfennigs and several thousand those who can afford paying 60 pfennigs for bread. With such a state of affairs they had to stop giving away bread coupons for everybody and currently the city cares about providing cheap bread at 40 pfennigs only for
unemployed. The number of issued bread coupons is 8000. The city cash register, in order to. 3 cover losses from selling bread to the poorest below costs, adopted that sugar will be sold at 2 marks 25 pfennigs per pound and from the wealthier take 1 mark per pound. Obtained sum will ensure providing bread for 8000 of poorest. (ZŁ 6)
➢ In Łomża squadron of lancers was founded, their barracks are at Wasilewska street, their commander is lieutenant Gielewicz. The history of squadron started from 40 horses taken from Germans. Currently it consists of 190 soldiers, who are conducted by a colonel Dziewulski, quartered in Warsaw. „In the Łomża Land there are also three squadrons in Ostrołęka and one of machine guns, the sixth squadron under the command of lieutenant Barylski is fighting near Lviv”. The soldiers are trained by lieutenants Skrzynecki and Karpowicz. (ZŁ 7)
➢ The organization of peoples militia is going forward. Posuwa się naprzód organizacja milicji ludowej. A commander of Łomża district, which consists of 9 counties, is lieutenant Stefan Lalek – Sowa, seconded from army by an order of the General Commander and approved to the post by the Minister of Internal Affairs Wojciechowski. Commanders of circuits are militia officers: Henryk Świderski – Łomża county, Julian Kołakowski – Przasnysz county, Zygmunt Grodzki – Maków county, Franciszek Bąk – Pułtusk county, Stanisław Bazylko – Ostrów county, Antoni Bakowski – Rawicz – Ostrołęka county, Roman Przybyszewski – Kolno county, Kacper Kantorowicz – Zbyszko – Mazowieck county and E. Reroń – Szczuczyn county.
➢ On the 15th of February Ministry of Internal Affairs approved the election of Władysław Świderski for the post of a Łomża mayor. (ZŁ 8)
➢ On the 12th of January 1918 general meeting of the Polish Women’s Ligue of War Emergency Łomża Branch (Liga Kobiet Polskich Pogotowia Wojennego Oddział Łomżyński) appointed to its management following persons: Z. Cabertowa, C. Dąbrowska, J. Jabłkowska, J. Kleindienstowa, J. Kossakowska; to the revision audit: A. Rychterowa, J. Woyczyńska, J. Cabertówna. They formed four sections: caring for soldiers – a president M. Lachowiczowa, equality – L. Krubska, folk education – Z. Witczakowa and station – A. Jarnuszkiewiczowa. Activity of the Łomża Branch of the Ligue in 1918 comprised of organization of series of together Evenings in order to get funds for care over the internees, preparation of the 3rd of May celebrations together with “Lutnia”, carrying street collection for the workshop, after the departure of the occupants keeping three kitchens for soldiers, collecting donations for the National Treasure. (ZŁ 8)
➢ Rumors were spreading from a certain date in Ostrołęka county that in Goworowo Bolshevism is spreading frighteningly, that workers are to attack nearby mansions etc. On the 27th of January a squad of lancers arrested „ringleader” of the band Piotr Ostrowski, who was to attack citizen Antoni Glinka, mansions, priests and monasteries. In reality Mr. Ostrowski suffers for establishing circles of Stronnictwo Ludowe, he demanded improvement of existence of farm service, because of which he got criticized by landowners like Mr. Glinka. Ostrowski several times organized common meetings of landowners and workers and finally they settled. 4 the conditions of their work and pay. Only Mr. Glinka, although signed an agreement, his word
given to „boors” found invalid and still paid his workers 80 marks per year, though other
mansions paid 400. (ZŁ 9)
➢ By the County Make-up Command (Powiatowa Komenda Uzupełnień) in Łomża they organized Patronage of Conscripts (Patronat Poborowy). Commander of PKU in Łomża, colonel Czajewski issued a proclamation, in which he calls for generosity for Polish soldiers. The Patronage task is to collect money donations and in kind for the sake of Polish soldiers, furnishing canteens for troops, sending delegates to hand in holiday gifts to the soldiers from the own county. (ZŁ 9)
➢ During the first days of October there appeared big fiery poles in the sky from the north side. They were shining brighter, turned smaller or dissolved and merged into one bigger streak of fire. Most probably they were reflections of aurora. (GP 12–13)
➢ In Dylewo, Ostrołęka county a brickyard was founded in spring in which they already burned several furnaces of bricks and from the 20th of October they set going production of tiles and cement boardings. A supervisor is Józef Wyrębek, former “beekeeper”. (GP 12–13)
➢ Near Suchy Borek in Nowogród forestry thieves cut 500-year-old pine to get to honey. They took several bushels of old honey but they wasted bees, because they committed this crime in winter. The pine was standing on the ground of Józef Dymek, a farmer from Dobry Las. Trunk of the beehive to the first branches was over 16 meters long and its circuit over 5 meters. (GP 14)
➢ Considering a thousand of unemployed a County Committee of Public Works decided about building narrow-gauge railway from Nowogród to Łomża, establishing carpentry workshops and a bickyard. They decided also about connecting 3 Maja and Wiejska streets and create a square and turn to the authorities for permission to demolish an orthodox church at Sienkiewicza street. (ZŁ 9)
➢ Nowogród was greatly destroyed during the war. In 1915 there were several dozen different houses and over the next three years increased a few , they were wooden houses, little huts, some barns. „People live and nestle anyhow, buildings are erected helter-scelter, majority of broken by war inhabitants neither have houses nor funds for building.” The Polish government predestined over a dozen million marks for reconstruction of the belt by the Narew River, from which Nowogród will receive a million marks of loan. On the 15th of November in Nowogród took place a meeting in this matter. Engineer Pokrzyński, who arrived from Łomża, declared to the gathered, that the Ministry of Reconstruction, leaning to his proposal, allocated
for Nowogród a loan, of which the first installment – 250 000 it is possible to get right away. Priority will have those, whose households were destroyed during the war, next those, who already started reconstruction but they do not have means to finish it and finally those, who want to build, though never had their own buildings. (GP 12-13) . 5
➢ In relations with the first anniversary of regaining independence a committee in composition of: Bronisław Hupert – a chairman of the county, Rev. Julian Czarnowski – a dean, Albin Gromadzki – a member of the county council, Kazimierz Kisielnicki – a member of the county department, Kapłan Samul Izrael – a rabbi, Feliks Kościelecki – a mayor, Kowalewski – a farmer from Borkow, Leokadia Kosikowska – a president of KMZ, Roman Lasocki – a landowner, Mateusz Pomichowski – a member of the council, Józef Śmiechowski – a schools headmaster, Lucyna Śnieżkówna – a teacher, turned to the people of Kolno county with proclamation ,in which they ask for donations for construction of the Folk House (Dom Ludowy) in Łyse and recommends flagging and decorating towns and villages with carpets, green, stickers, busts and portraits of Polish heroes and organizing musical-vocal evenings and lecture. (GP 12-13)
➢ On the 15th of December there was a rally of PSL. From Łomża appeared speakers:
prof. Dembowski, Franciszek Szymański and Franciszek Hryniewicz. In the proceedings,
which for a topic had an improvement of people’s situation, a pastor Lendo also took part. (ZŁ
➢ On the19th of December took place a visitation of the state male junior high by bishop suffragan rev. Jałbrzykowski. (ZŁ 8)
➢ At Szosowa street 3 in Łomża they opened a restaurant Pod Złotym Koniem, which owners are Antoni Wiktorowski and Józefa Majkowska. (ZŁ 8)
➢ With initiative of Liga Kobiet and Związek Kobiet there was a collection for the needs of army. Army representatives: Maj. Wyspiański and Captain Giecewicz exhorted society for help, because in army there is lack of shirts, clothes, underwear, gloves and fats. (ZŁ 8)
➢ With initiative of the priests’ society „Unitas” in Łomża Uniwersytet Powszechny im. Kilińskiego was founded. (ZŁ 8)
➢ Caring for the development of education, the government reopens or establishes new postal and telephone branches. In weeks arose post offices in Nowogród, Łyse, Myszyniec and Kadzidło, in Grabowo (Szczuczyn county), in Raczki and Filipowo (on the Suwałki borderland). Besides there will be a postal agency in Turośl (Kolno county) and Janów
(Przasnysz county). (GPg 1)
➢ In Ostrołęka was found Związek Robotniczo–Handlowy, which started to buy hay for the army. So far the only suppliers were Jews, now the army will receive hay from our hands. At the same time the inhabitants of the village Kadzidło passed a resolution, that none of them will sell a Jew any cart of hay. Who will deceive the resolution, will have to pay 100 marks for a Polish soldier. (GPg 1) 1 Today it is called Janowo and it belongs to Nidzica county.
➢ A chairman of the Kolno county forbid Jews peddling. „It is a good and desirable ban, because Jews spread around the villages different illnesses, and often look out for what kind of horse anybody has and what locks. Kolno Jews, offended by this ban, went to Warsaw with complaint”. GPg 1)
➢ In Łomża county during the 1918/1919 school year 6557 schoolboys and schoolgirls were learning, there were 85 schools, general number of teachers was 114. For Kolno county falls 4469 pupils, 63 schools and 76 teachers. By fulfilling demands of villagers and townsmen they established in Łomża county 35 schools and in Kolno county 25. In current school year there are 41 vacant schools in Łomża county and in Kolno county there are 64. It is caused by a complete lack of qualified teachers. In Łomża, besides the state male seminar, there is a private seminar for female folk teachers counting 96 students, who in the future could start working at school. (GŁ 1)
➢ In 1919 in Łomża an ecclesiastical seminary was established. Łomża belonged to Sejny diocese, composed of Poles and Lithuanians. Lithuanians, wanting to separate from Poles, founded a seminary in Lithuanian part of Suwałki region, Poles – in Łomża. There are currently 43 seminarians in it and a course of study is seven years.
➢ At Łomża county council they promised to assign 40 000 for female seminar, which was founded by Związek Katolicki Kobiet. A headmaster of the school completely gave up her salary (about 12 000 marks) in favor of the seminar and a teaching staff, regardless of difficult conditions of life, gave up voluntarily 25% of their wages in favor of that institution. (GŁ 2)
➢ Supervision of the female junior high in Łomża took Ms. Peretjatkowicz – long-term and well-deserved headmaster of public schools in Kiev. (GŁ 2)
➢ In Łomża is being founded emergency care, for which Łomża county council predestined 102 280 marks and the same amount is to be assigned by Ministry of Health. Emergency will provide care to 50 children from the street. To the Commission of Social Care were appointed: J. Cholewińska, Mr. Roszkowski and Mr. Komornicki. (GŁ 2)
➢ Łomża municipality issued food stamps for people for a period of three months, that is to January 1920. Because initially the stamps were only protected by printed sign „Łomża” and did not carried additional seal of the municipality, over a thousand occurred false. For falsifying stamps two inhabitants of Łomża are sitting under the key. (GŁ 2)
➢ On days 29th – 31st of October in Łomża led the debate a county council. Łomża, besides Mr. H. Epsztejn, was represented by St. Kamieniecki, Zambrów by a mayor Hipolit Choromański and Jan Filipowicz. Tadeusz Pieńkowski from Drozdowo, Piotr Targoński from Chlebiotki, Marian Zalewski from Kossaki – Rutki2
– all of them were drafted to army and their
place took Leopold Aliński from Kalinowo, Wacław Sikorski from Targonie and Stanisław
It is about Rutki-Kossaki near Zambrów.
Czochański from Czechy. Budget referrer of the county stated that the budget closes with the sum of 4 519 640 marks. (GŁ 3)
➢ To the Commission of War Benefits were chosen gentlemen: Jemielity, Kierzyński, Karbowski and Goldman. The council among others adopted one-time benefit in the amount of 500 marks for the family of killed in battle with Germans late Gibbes. (GŁ 3)
➢ In male and female junior highs there are to be introduced hot breakfasts for students, composed of milk and white rolls. (GŁ 3)
➢ Students’ parents turned to the editors of „Gazeta” with complaint, that the students attending younger classes of junior high did not have any lessons of Polish during the first semester. (GŁ 3)
➢ On the 25th of October in the village of Kokoszki, Bożejewo commune, two horses were stolen from Marianna Wysocka. In the village of Krzewo unknown perpetrators stole a bay horse from Zofia Kulesza and on the 28th of October in Zbrzeźnica, Puchały commune, a chestnut horse. (GŁ 3)
➢ On the 27th of October in Łomża died engineer Alfred Lustgarten, a district housing inspector, who „with outstanding intelligence and righteous character he stood out by extraordinary delicacy, engaging sociable manners and rare wit, that is why his death echoed painfully among his coworkers and a wider circle of close acquaintances.”. (GŁ 3)
➢ [from the reader’s letter] „At Zambrowski plaza during the market days playing three cards takes place. Big gambling goes on, people loose thousands. The police should pay attention to it.” (GŁ 6)
➢ Every day we can see Jews at the street, who mistreat horses, which are unable to pull carts out of deep gaps. In other cities there are branches of the Pet Care Company. It would be good also in Łomża to think about poor animals. (GŁ 6)
➢ On the 18th of December, thanks to attempts of a group of people from the Patronage of Conscripts and Koło Polek, they sent to front for the 33 Infantry the whole carriage of Christmas gifts. It was composed of 1000 pieces of underwear and warm clothes from the collection in Łomża and the country, 500 pieces of tricot underwear bought from the White Cross, speck, bread, soap, candles, matches, cigarettes, books, writing paper. As a delegate of a County Department went Mr. Długoborski, who will assist in distribution of gifts. (GŁ 7)
Źródła i ich skróty:
„Czuwaj” (Cz) Monthly dedicated to the affairs of scouting teams in Łomża. (nr 5) November
„Echo Szkolne” (ES) from 1928 (nr 1, 2, 3, 4, 5-6, 7, 9) and 1929 (nr 1, 2).
„Gazeta Kolneńska” (GK) Nonpartisan periodical from 1928.
„Gazeta Łomżyńska” (GŁ) Paper dedicated to issues of national life of the Łomża Land in
political, social and cultural range from 1919 (nr 1–7).
„Goniec Pograniczny” (GPg) A suplement to „Gość Puszczański” from 1919–1921, 1923 and
„Głos Puszczański” (GP) From 1919 and 1920. Paper of Kurpie. Educational, economically-
social and touring weekly with pictures, dedicated to Kurpie, Masuria and other borderlands
„Tygodnik Suwalski” (TS) Social-agricultural-political paper (nr 26) September of 1927.
„Tygodnik Ziemi Łomżyńskiej” (TZŁ). Social-economic paper from 1938 (nr 1–13) and 1939
(nr 14, 20–27, 32, 33)
„Wiadomości Kościelne Diecezji Łomżyńskiej” (WK) from 1927 (nr 1–13) and 1928 (nr 1–
„Wspólna Praca” (WP) from 1910 (nr 2, 3); 1921 (nr 5); 1922 (nr 6, 7-8, 8, 9-11, 12); 1927
(nr 6, 7, 8, 9, 10); 1928 (nr 1–13) and 1929 (nr 1–5, 5-6, 7); 1930 (nr 1–17).
„Ziemia Łomżyńska” (ZŁ) from 1918 (nr 8), 1919 (nr 1–9) and 1921 (nr 1).
„Życie i Praca” (ŻP). Informational-social body dedicated to the Lands of Białystok
Voivodship from 1924, 1925 and 1926.